siachen glacier river

[58], The waste produced by the troops stationed there is dumped in the crevasses of the glacier. [5] It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus. At an altitude of roughly 5,400 meters (17,700 feet), the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir is a forbidding place. [38] As per official records, only 220 Indian soldiers have been killed by enemy bullets since 1984 in Siachen area. The Shyok in turn joins the 3000 kilometer-long Indus River which flows through Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan claim sovereignty over the entire Siachen region. The glacier as such lies in a huge trough of more than 2 Km width with boulders and rocks on its two sides. The Nubra river emerges from the southernmost tip of Siachen glacier. Land The glacier emanates near the Indra Koli Pass, on the Pak China border, 37 nautical miles southeast of K2. The Shyok in turn joins the 3000 kilometre-long Indus River which flows through Pakistan. [29][30] The Indian Army has developed various means to reach the Siachen region, including the Manali-Leh-Khardung La-Siachen route. The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5,589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5,450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5,689 m (18,665 ft). In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot, a military operation that gave India control over all of the Siachen Glacier, including its tributaries. Landsat 7 took this picture on May 18, 2001. In the scene, snow and ice cover most of the jagged peaks of the Himalaya Mountains. [35][36] According to TIME magazine, India gained over 1,000 square miles (3,000 km2) in territory because of its 1980s military operations in Siachen. In Kashmir Conflict Zone, The Glacier Is The Enemy It's been years since shots were fired on the Siachen glacier, where troops from Pakistan and India face off. Siachen Glacier will be the main tourist attraction in Ladakh very soon as the Government of India has announced to allow tourist movement till Siachen base up to Kumar Post (Kumar Camp). Several tributary rivers of ice flow together, such as the Lolofond and Teram Shehr glaciers, adding their ice to the Siachen Glacier as it winds southeast, where the Nubra River emerges from its terminus. [56][57] As of 2007, the temperature rise at Siachen was estimated at 0.2-degree Celsius annually, causing melting, avalanches, and crevasses in the glacier. The Siachen Brigade is headquartered at Partapur; on the Pakistani side, the Brigade HQ is at Khapalu. The glacier is claimed by both India and Pakistan, with a large deployment by both sides. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. [51] The Indian army is said to have planned a "Green Siachen, Clean Siachen" campaign to airlift the garbage from the glacier, and to use biodigestors for biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen and freezing temperatures. Mountaineers who visited the area while on climbing expeditions witnessed large amount of garbage, empty ammunition shells, parachutes etc. Both India and Pakistan have wished to disengage from the costly military outposts. Glaciers can merge together like rivers, and that is the case here. [47] The 1972 Simla Agreement made no change to the 1949 Line of Control in this northernmost sector. At much lower altitudes, the glacier’s impact is benign: it is the source of the Nubra River, a tributary of the Indus River flowing into Pakistan and the Arabian Sea. The glaciers melting water is the main source of water for the Nubra River, which further falls into the Shyok River. Siachen glacier is one of the lovely glaciers of Karakoram range. It has a number of fast-flowing surface streams and at least 12 medial moraines. The Siachen Glacier lies immediately south of the great drainage divide that separates the Eurasian Plate from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram sometimes called the "Third Pole". Image of the Day The 1949 Karachi agreement only carefully delineated the line of separation to point NJ9842, after which, the agreement states that the line of separation would continue "thence north to the glaciers". [49], The glacier was uninhabited before 1984, and the presence of thousands of troops since then has introduced pollution and melting on the glacier. [50], Preliminary findings of a survey by Pakistan Meteorological Department in 2007 revealed that the Siachen glacier has been retreating for the past 30 years and is melting at an alarming rate. The Siachen Glacier, the world’s largest alpine icefield, is leaking the refuse of war into a water system used by more than 300 million people. “Chun” refers to any object found in abundance. Floods Siachen Glacier, one of the world’s longest mountain glaciers, lying in the Karakoram Range system of Kashmir near the India–Pakistan border, extending for 44 mi (70 km) from north-northwest to south-southeast. The glacier remains militarised and India has dozens of battalions that have extensive experience in holding and maintaining high altitude posts, even through the harsh winter season. The idea of declaring the Siachen region a "Peace Park" was presented by environmentalists and peace activists in part to preserve the ecosystem of the region badly affected by the military presence. [6][7][8][9] Pakistan maintains a territorial claim over the Siachen Glacier[10] and controls the region west of Saltoro Ridge, lying west of the glacier,[11] with Pakistani posts located 3,000 ft below more than 100 Indian posts on the ridge.[12][13]. The Second sub-ridge from KK Ridge is the Saltoro, West of the Siachen Glacier/ Nubra River, on which the Indian Army units are deployed. [51] The study of satellite images of the glacier showed that the glacier is retreating at a rate of about 110 meters a year and that the glacier size has decreased by almost 35 percent. The glacier's region is the highest battleground on Earth,[66] where Pakistan and India have fought intermittently since April 1984. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in the Indian region of Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. Which continent has largest non polar ice caps? Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses. The Siachen Glacier develops into the Nubra River, which is a tributary of Shyok. The Shyok in turn joins the River Indus; thus, the Glacier is a major source for River Indus. [64], The flora and fauna of the Siachen region are also affected by the huge military presence. [37] In February 2016, Indian Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar stated in Parliament that India will not vacate Siachen as there is trust deficit with Pakistan and also said that 915 people have lost their lives in Siachen since Operation Meghdoot in 1984. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, during which he called for a peaceful resolution of the problem. [67] Both of them showed their commitment to resolve the Siachen conflict as early as possible. Biafo Glacier For half a century, it has been the one known Alaskan glacier to withstand the effects of climate change—until now. India and Pakistan fought for control of this glacier starting in the 1980s. The Shyok then joins the 3,000 km-long Indus river which flows through Pakistan. Another view of it. [60] Almost forty percent (40%) of the waste left at the glacier is of plastic and metal composition, including toxins such as cobalt, cadmium and chromium that eventually affect the water of the Shyok River (which ultimately enters the Indus River near Skardu.) The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in the Indian region of Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. The Glacier’s melting waters are the main source of the River Nubra in India, which drains into the River Shyok. [74], Sandia National Laboratories organised conferences where military experts and environmentalists from both India and Pakistan and also from other countries were invited to present joint papers. Sometimes described as a white snake, the Siachen Glacier is more than 70 kilometers long. President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari also visited a area near the Siachen Glacier called Gayari Sector during 2012 with Pakistan Army Chief Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. Shyok and Siachen are river and glacier respectively. [24][25][26], Aside from the Indian and Pakistani military presence, the glacier region is unpopulated. The entire Siachen Glacier, with all major passes, has been under the administration of India (currently as part of the union territory of Ladakh, located in the Kashmir region) since 1984. [23] Both India and Pakistan continue to deploy thousands of troops in the vicinity of Siachen and attempts to demilitarise the region have been so far unsuccessful. Together with some 18,000 other glaciers, it forms the heart of the Indus River Basin. The Shyok River (lit. Siachen’s first strategic importance is that its frozen icy waste melts into the River Nubra, which drains the Nubra Valley and provides huge resources of water to Pakistan; the River Nubra flows into the River Shyok which in turn flows to River Indus in PoK. [63] Some scientists of the Defence Research and Development Organisation who went on an expedition to Antarctica are also working to produce a bacterium that can thrive in extreme weather conditions and can be helpful in decomposing the biodegradable waste naturally. Land On the Indian side, roads go only as far as the military base camp at Dzingrulma at 35°09′59″N 77°12′58″E / 35.1663°N 77.2162°E / 35.1663; 77.2162, 72 km from the head of the glacier. Standing Guard. At much lower altitudes, the glacier’s impact is benign: it is the source of the Nubra River, a tributary of the Indus River flowing into Pakistan and the Arabian Sea. One of the four villages of Baltistan region in India, Turtuk, the gateway to Siachen Glacier, lies on the banks of Shyok River in Nubra, Ladakh. [70] In September 2003, the governments of India and Pakistan were urged by the participants of 5th World Parks Congress held at Durban, to establish a peace park in the Siachen region to restore the natural biological system and protect species whose lives are at risk. After that present Prime Minister Narendra Modi also visited this place. [15][16] Indian troops under Operation Meghdoot pre-empted Pakistan's Operation Ababeel by just one day to occupy most of the dominating heights on Saltoro Ridge to the west of Siachen Glacier. Image of the Day Land It is predicted that the glaciers of the Siachen region will be reduced to about one-fifth of their 2011 size by 2035. [dropcap color=”#008040″ boxed=”yes” boxed_radius=”8px” class=”” id=””]T [/dropcap]he melt water of Saichen glacier is the main source of the Nubra river, which drains into the Shyok river. In the early summer of 2011, the Medvezhiy Glacier in Tajikistan slid abruptly down its valley, creating a glacial lake. [58] Italian ecologist Giuliano Tallone terming the ecological life at serious risk, proposed setting up of Siachen Peace Park at the conference. To support the troops, glacial ice has been cut and melted with chemicals. Blizzards can last for weeks, temperatures can drop to -55 degrees Celsius (-67 degrees Fahrenheit), and crevasses can swallow a person whole. The average winter snowfall is more than 1000 cm (35 ft) and temperatures can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F). The expeditions are also meant to show to the international audience that Indian troops hold "almost all dominating heights" on the key Saltoro Ridge and to show that Pakistani troops are nowhere near the Siachen Glacier. Lying inside a rock-strewn trough roughly 2 kilometers wide, the glacier is covered with snow in the middle. On the Siachen glacier, avalanches and the extreme cold have killed and maimed many more soldiers than active fighting has. [61] The region is home to rare species including snow leopard, brown bear and ibex that are at risk because of the military presence.[63][65]. The Shyok and Nubra Valleys are approached over the Ladakh Range via Chang La and Khardung La passes. The Indus is used for drinking and irrigation. [17][18] However, more soldiers have died from the harsh weather conditions in the region than from combat. It is rented on the north-bound… [20][21] Between January 2012 and July 2015, 33 Indian soldiers lost their lives due to adverse weather. Prior to 1984, neither country had any military forces in this area. [61][62] Research is being done by scientists of The Energy and Resources Institute, to find ways for successfully disposing the garbage generated at the glacier using scientific means. Snow and Ice. The Siachen is some 76km long and covers some 700 square kilometres. T he name Siachen Glacier conjures up the image of a flowing river of ice, starting around 12,000 feet above sea level and going up to 24,000 feet and above. [19] Pakistan lost 353 soldiers in various operations recorded between 2003 and 2010 near Siachen, including 140 Pakistani personnel killed in 2012 Gayari Sector avalanche. [69] In addition, the Indian Army's Army Mountaineering Institute (AMI) functions out of the region. "Sia" in the Balti language refers to the rose family plant widely dispersed in the region. Siachen Glacier With a vast snowfield in the center, sides strewn with rocks and boulders and a length of about 72-km, Siachen is known as the largest glacier in the world outside the Polar Regions. Long known as the world’s highest battleground, the glacier could enjoy a different status. The nearest civilian settlement is the village of Warshi, 10 miles downstream from the Indian base camp. Pakistan has also lost hundreds of soldiers for the same reason. One sunny morning, two autumns ago, in the Karakoram range of the Himalayas, the raging waters of the Siachen glacier were a frothy white, snaking through the valley with a deafening roar. Acquired in 2001 and 2010, these natural-color images show substantial retreat in the Jakobshavn Glacier. Because of the frequent fighting between the troops of India and Pakistan, Siachen Glacier is often referred to as the highest battlefield on earth. [34] Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. It almost forms a triangle between India, China, and some territory claimed by Pakistan. Siachen glacier is a source to Nubra river which later joins Shyok river. August 24, 2020 The Siachen Glacier was discovered in 1907 and is the world’s largest glacier outside of the polar regions. The glacier’s central region is covered with snow, and that snow and the rest of the glacier’s icy surface appear white. 'the river of death') a tributary of the Indus River that flows through northern Ladakh and enters Gilgit–Baltistan, spanning some 550 km (340 mi). [59] About 1000 kilograms of waste is produced and dumped in glacial crevasses daily by the Indian forces. The Siachen base camp is situated at the snout of the glacier, on the bank of the river Nubra, at a height of 12,000 feet above sea level. The Indian Army was recommending opening Siachen area for tourists for a long time and finally, the official announcement was made by the defence minister Rajnath Singh on October 21, 2019. [75][76], "Siachen" redirects here. Snow and Ice. The beauty of the glacier can be savoured through a good pair of binoculars. Both India and Pakistan had their claims on the glacier. The Shyok River, meaning “the river of death”, flows through northern Ladakh, all the way to Pakistan, spanning some 550 km in all. Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses. The ultimate mountain faceoff has been on at the Siachen glacier since India decided to set up positions at impossible heights in excess of 20,000 feet since 1984. The first group included cadets from Chail Military School, National Defence Academy, National Cadet Corps, Indian Military Academy, Rashtriya Indian Military College and family members of armed forces officers. Siachen Glacier is the second longest glacier outside of the polar regions and largest in the Himalayas-Karakoram region. [48][52] In an eleven-year period, the glacier had receded nearly 800 meters,[53] and in seventeen years about 1700 meters. dumped on the glacier, that neither decomposes nor can be burned because of the extreme climatic conditions. [22] In December 2015, Indian Union Minister of State for Defence Rao Inderjit Singh said in a written reply in the Lok Sabha that a total of 869 Army personnel have lost their lives on the Siachen glacier due to climatic conditions and environmental and other factors till date since the Army launched Operation Meghdoot in 1984. The glacier is known for the extreme hardships that the Indian Army jawan endures while defending the nation’s borders. [54] In the twenty-nine-year period 1929–1958, well before the military occupation, the glacial retreat was recorded to be about 914 meters. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the University of Maryland’s Global Land Cover Facility. [4][42][43][44][45] According to the Indian stance, the line of separation should continue roughly northwards along the Saltoro Range, to the west of the Siachen glacier beyond NJ9842;[46] international boundary lines that follow mountain ranges often do so by following the watershed drainage divide[40] such as that of the Saltoro Range. Issue of Indian hijacked PAN AM Aircraft, which landed in Karachi. Image of the Day This glacier is situated on the lower inclines of the Karakoram extend in Gilgit . [73] The area to the east and west of the Siachen region have already been declared national parks: the Karakoram Wildlife Sanctuary in India and the Central Karakoram National Park in Pakistan. It means the place of roses – Sia (rose), Chen (place of). Such is … The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. Thus, the glacier is a major source of the Indus and feeds the largest irrigation system in the world. 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